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A Tribal Province of Pakistan

By Dr Ghayur Ayub :- 

Describing Pashtuns on April 26, 1903 at Shahi Bagh Peshawar Lord Curzon said, “Pathan is a curious mixture. He is a man of war but he is also a born trader.” He was talking about Pashtun’s trading capabilities and comparing them with other races in India. Had he gone in details he would have mentioned that Pashtuns lived their lives on three platforms. First, their culture or Riwaj which is broad based applicable on Pashtuns living anywhere. Second their customs which is narrow based and change from region to region. Third, their religion which is Islam engraved in their bones. Unfortunately, religion is mixed with culture and customs creating social, moral and political dilemmas. The traditional theologians took advantage of this amalgamation and used it as a firing tool in social, moral and political fields.

These three platforms are important when deciding on having a separate tribal province. In addition, there are other issues essential for good administrative needs, such as communication links, having a capital city, good education and health facilities not forgetting the dispute over the Durand Border Treaty of 1893. On the map, the province will look like a restless snake lying between Pakistan and Afghanistan inhabiting a population of 3207095.

After 9/11, FATA became the most dangerous region in the eyes of the world. The public opinion in Pakistan is not different either which considers it as the epicentre of terrorism. Against this background, the government wants to take away its century old buffer status between the Pakistan and Afghanistan and bring it in line with other provinces of the country. A committee was constituted under the leadership of Mr Sartaj Aziz. He worked hard under the most difficult circumstances and came up with many recommendations including its amalgamation with KP. I went through the document.

Two prominent Pashtun leaders, Maulana Fazl Ur Rehman from KP and Achakzai from Baluchistan opposed it for their own reasons. Apparently, Maulana Sahib wants to see it as a separate province keeping his religious angle rather than Pashtun culture or custom in mind. While Achakzai is known to have been aiming to have a separate country called Greater Afghania which is akin to the wishes of those Baluch leaders who are striving for independent Baluchistan. It is very interesting that both leaders do not belong to FATA.

 Let me take some of the issues mentioned above.

Communication means road, rail and air links. If we look at the serpentine shape of FATA we see no road links between all agencies. If someone wants to travel from one agency to another he has to go to KP and re-enter the required agency. Mind you these agencies will be converted into districts and sub districts in a tribal province. It means if the government wants to listen to either Maulana Sahib or Achakzai it has to create proper road network connecting all the agencies. Easy? Not really.

Then comes the rail tracks. The only rail track in FATA runs from Peshawar to Landi Kotal and that too is non-operative. So a separate Tribal Province will be a province with no train services. Train is the cheapest way of communication and goods movement in Pakistan. Gilgit Baltistan doesn’t have rail link either but that is substituted by the CPEC. While not all the agencies get benefit from CPEC. Will it be easy for the federal government to lay rail track in the new province? I don’t think so?

Then comes the air link. We do not have a decent airport worth of its name in FATA that could accommodate big commercial planes. A new province with no decent airport? It would need at least one airport in its capital city for big commercial planes. Would the government afford to build one?

This brings me to the next important point of deciding on the capital city. I can’t think of any city in FATA which can be made the capital. The most prosperous and populated agency-The Khyber- doesn’t have its capital. The political agent lives and controls the agency from Peshawar. Similarly, Aurakzai agency is controlled from Hangu. All the agencies have small towns with very poor infrastructures but no cities. So, it will be the only province with no capital city worth a name. Even if the government decides to select one of the towns as capital city, the big question will arise which town? Every agency will fight tooth and nail to make its headquarter the capital city. And I tell you it will not be a minor dispute. It could lead to war like situation between the agencies. The government wouldn’t like to have a new war on its hands.

Now let us come to the health. There is not a single hospital worth its name in FATA. Zulfiqar Ali Bhttuo wanted to make a medical college in Parachinar and built a hospital for the purpose in mid-seventies. Gen Zia ul Haq transferred all the funds and built Ayub Medical College in Abbotabad on those funds. I was the first consultant surgeon posted to Agency HQ Hospital at Parachinar in 1979. It was a very well planned hospital in those days, but I saw it going down because governor Gen. Fazal Haq ignored it completely freezing most of its funds. The federal government would have to build a hospital or two before making FATA a separate province. Can it afford it in present circumstance? I leave it to your imagination.

Its the same story with education? Except for a quality educational institution at Razmak which is run by the army, the FATA doesn’t have a good educational institution. All the colleges are below standards imparting substandard education. As a result, all the well-to-do send their children to Peshawar or Islamabad. Moreover, there is no university in FATA. With such an educational backwardness can the government risk having separate tribal province?

And finally let’s not forget the sectarian conflicts between the agencies. The prominent being the Kurram and the Aurakzai agencies where Shais have large population. After 9/11, major clashes occurred between Sunnis and Shias spearheaded by the clerics of pro Saudi Deobandi sect and pro Iran Shias sect respectively. Shias do not feel secure even living in FATA which is under army control. How could they live in a civilian dominated province run primarily by anti-Shia groups? The clashes will escalate leading to an unimaginable bloodshed never seen before.

If the government listens to Maulana Sahib or Achakzai, it has to develop proper infrastructure, build hospitals, medical colleges, education institutes, and universities. Alternatively, it’s amenable to amalgamate it with KP without going through inexorable difficulties. Recently, Maulana Sahib quoted a decision by Tribal Quami Jirga opting for separate province. I don’t know whether Maulana Sahib knows that there are hundreds of Qaums living in FATA. How many Qaums took part in that Jirga? Does he know that most of these Quams don’t look eye to eye on the premise of being ‘Tarboor’? Tarboor actually means cousin but in tribal culture it is considered as bitter opponent or even enemy. Can he imagine what would be the state of a tribal province where the inhabitants of one agency consider the inhabitants of other agencies as their enemies? I am sure he knows about it unless he is looking at it at religious angle. But then that too is not very rosy filled with sectarian hate.

There is Persian proverb which says, ‘Gham Na Dari, Buz Bekhar.’meaning-by if you don’t have a problem buy a goat. A new independent tribal province is like buying a goat.

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